Today, 192 years ago as born in Heinzendorf, Austria (nowadays, Czech Republic) Gregor Mendel.
He is remembered as a geneticist and as a monk. Through experiments in the monastery’s garden discovered the principles of heredity (Mendelian inheritance). This studies became the basis of modern genetics and Mendel, a pioneer.
He experimented with pea plants. Certain traits follows particular rules and patterns:
1- Law of Segregation: during gamete formation, the alleles for each gene segregate from each other. Each gamete carries one allele for each gene.
2- Law of Independent Assortment: genes for different traits segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
3- Law of Dominance: some alleles are dominant while others are recessive; an organism with at least one dominant allele will display the effect of the dominant allele.